Figure 1. Outcrop at the Tioga, PA locality with myself and Dr. Andrew Bush to the far left. Outcrop begins in the Wiscoy Formation, overlain by the Pipe Creek (the shale unit in the center of the photo) and Canaseraga formations. Detailed stratigraphy below in figure 4, locality map shown in figure 5.

Figure 1. Outcrop at the Tioga, PA locality with myself and Dr. Andrew Bush to the far left. Outcrop begins in the Wiscoy Formation, overlain by the Pipe Creek (the shale unit in the center of the photo) and Canaseraga formations. Detailed stratigraphy below in figure 4, locality map shown in figure 5.

 Figure 2. Photo of my advisor Dr. Andrew Bush (left) and myself (right) at an Upper Devonian outcrop near Tioga, PA. The shale is the Pipe Creek Formation, approximately the Lower Kellwasser extinction horizon

Figure 2. Photo of my advisor Dr. Andrew Bush (left) and myself (right) at an Upper Devonian outcrop near Tioga, PA. The shale is the Pipe Creek Formation, approximately the Lower Kellwasser extinction horizon

 Figure 3. Granule-rich sandstone (the newly named Hammond Member) within the Canaseraga Formation. This coarse sandstone unit overlies the distal silty-shales of the Pipe Creek Formation

Figure 3. Granule-rich sandstone (the newly named Hammond Member) within the Canaseraga Formation. This coarse sandstone unit overlies the distal silty-shales of the Pipe Creek Formation

 Figure 4. Stratigraphy of the upper Frasnian-lower Famennian of New York State (NY) and north-central Pennsylvania (PA). The Southern Tier of New York refers the portion of the outcrop belt stretching from Wiscoy Creek to the Pennsylvania border, and Western New York refers to localities west or northwest of Wiscoy Creek (Fig. 1A). A) Stratigraphy based on a combination of Pepper and deWitt (1950, 1951), Rickard (1964), and Smith and Jacobi (2000). B) Revised stratigraphy from Bush et al. (2015). C) Revised stratigraphy proposed in Beard et al. (2017). F-F boundary date from Gradstein et al. (2012). Figure is from Beard et al. (accepted in P^3)

Figure 4. Stratigraphy of the upper Frasnian-lower Famennian of New York State (NY) and north-central Pennsylvania (PA). The Southern Tier of New York refers the portion of the outcrop belt stretching from Wiscoy Creek to the Pennsylvania border, and Western New York refers to localities west or northwest of Wiscoy Creek (Fig. 1A). A) Stratigraphy based on a combination of Pepper and deWitt (1950, 1951), Rickard (1964), and Smith and Jacobi (2000). B) Revised stratigraphy from Bush et al. (2015). C) Revised stratigraphy proposed in Beard et al. (2017). F-F boundary date from Gradstein et al. (2012). Figure is from Beard et al. (accepted in P^3)

 Figure 5. A) Locations of outcrops in Tioga, north-central Pennsylvania, as well as the Wiscoy Creek locality in New York. The black line denotes the position of the Pipe Creek Formation, which is equivalent to the LKW (modified from Bush et al., 2015 and Woodrow, 1968). B) Geologic map of the Tioga area showing the locations of the TGB and TGA outcrops (modified from Berg et al., 1981). Dlh: Lock Haven Group (Caneadea Formation and below). Dck: Catskill Formation. MDhm: Huntley Mountain Formation. Figure is from Beard et al. (2017)

Figure 5. A) Locations of outcrops in Tioga, north-central Pennsylvania, as well as the Wiscoy Creek locality in New York. The black line denotes the position of the Pipe Creek Formation, which is equivalent to the LKW (modified from Bush et al., 2015 and Woodrow, 1968). B) Geologic map of the Tioga area showing the locations of the TGB and TGA outcrops (modified from Berg et al., 1981). Dlh: Lock Haven Group (Caneadea Formation and below). Dck: Catskill Formation. MDhm: Huntley Mountain Formation. Figure is from Beard et al. (2017)

 Figure 6. Various specimens of  Spinatrypa  sp. from the Upper Devonian. The Atrypids are great indicators of the Lower and Upper Kellwasser event with all Atrypids going extinct during the latter. These specimens are currently under taxonomic revision. 

Figure 6. Various specimens of Spinatrypa sp. from the Upper Devonian. The Atrypids are great indicators of the Lower and Upper Kellwasser event with all Atrypids going extinct during the latter. These specimens are currently under taxonomic revision. 

 Figure 7.  Eurydesma cordatum  (Morris 1845; left) from Beard et al. (2015) showing sampling sites within the umbo. Figure is from Beard et al. (2015)

Figure 7. Eurydesma cordatum (Morris 1845; left) from Beard et al. (2015) showing sampling sites within the umbo. Figure is from Beard et al. (2015)

 Figure 8. Map showing the locations of samples of  Eurydesma  from Beard et al. (2015). A) Paleogeographic map, New South Wales and Tasmania in dark grey, arrows indicated hypothesized surface water currents. B) Numbered circles show location of specific sample sites and the grey band shows the extent of the Sydney Basin (early Permian). Figure is from Beard et al. (2015)

Figure 8. Map showing the locations of samples of Eurydesma from Beard et al. (2015). A) Paleogeographic map, New South Wales and Tasmania in dark grey, arrows indicated hypothesized surface water currents. B) Numbered circles show location of specific sample sites and the grey band shows the extent of the Sydney Basin (early Permian). Figure is from Beard et al. (2015)

 Figure 9. Sequentially microsampled specimens of  Eurydesma  from Beard et al. (2015) showing seasonal variability in δ18O of the shell carbonate.

Figure 9. Sequentially microsampled specimens of Eurydesma from Beard et al. (2015) showing seasonal variability in δ18O of the shell carbonate.

 Figure 10. Calculated seawater composition determined from winter values from  Eurydemsa  specimens shown in figure 9.

Figure 10. Calculated seawater composition determined from winter values from Eurydemsa specimens shown in figure 9.

 Figure 11. Overlook of Bath, NY

Figure 11. Overlook of Bath, NY